Screening and Intake

The book Reynolds only reviews a short description of screen, specifically bar screen. Generally, if the intake is located to suck reservoir or river a two layer bar screen may be employed. First layer of bar screen is coarse bar screen. This screen has clear spaces between screen up to 75 mm (3″). As the clear space is quite big, it may be used to remove large debris (woods, rocks), or plastics as shown below.

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Introduction for Unit Operations

In Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), there are two important and core subjects to represent the existance this program study. They are Unit Operations and Unit Processes. We describe Unit Operations probe to physical process for water and wastewater treatment process.

The keypoints of Unit Operations as shown by picture below are based on physical mechanism to remove and treat unwanted pollutants. Students are expected to:

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TiO2/UV/H2O2 efficiency in removing organic compounds and color

I am now reading “Removal of color substances using photocatalytic oxidation for membrane filtration processes” for deeper understanding of what membrane is capable of. The study was aimed to determine the effectivity of UV/TiO2/H2O2 to remove color. So the technique can remove TOC at 38% and color 400 at 89%. The interesting fact was if the dosage of H2O2 is less than 0.016 M, then the system is accelerated, produce better TOC rejection and color removal, over-dosage (more than 0.016) declines the rejection enhancement. I only get this point, it appears that there is a break point dosage at which best removal can be achieved. However, there is no information yet the comparison between only TiO2/UV and TiO2/UV/H2O2 of the efficiency.

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My International paper

Wow, it has been more than 1 month of my absence updating this blog. I am now busy to submit my paper. The paper is concentration to discuss the advantage and the plus of my ceramic membrane. So first step I want to compose for my paper is to define the benefit of using the ceramic membrane instead of organic membrane. The benefit that I would like to propose is in terms of flux. My experiments had shown that the flux decline of my ceramic membrane is less than the organic membrane. The other thing I would like to display is the process of photocatalysis, by attaching the TiO2 in the surface of the membrane. This is often called immobilization.

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Environmental impact statement and Environmental assessment

The general principle of environmental impact assessment has been explained in previous post. Three outcomes resulted from judging the proposed project are FONSI, EA and EIA. EA and EIS document generally consist on three parts, introduction, description of proposed project and alternatives and description of the environment affected by the proposed actions.

The introduction part of the document will state overview of the project, the purpose, alternative actions, summary of important environmental aspects and the methods of assessment being used. The description of proposed actions and alternative will describe the actions, lists of stage conducted for the project. In this part, alternatives are also mentioned, including a “no-action” alternatives as well. Statement also include the projected actions if the project is not done.

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What is the effect of MWCO membrane towards fouling?

Right, this post is actually being made because of my other post about Between TiO2 and UV254 to contribute fouling and performance. If you look at the paragraph 2, it tells everything about the problem of the permeability. Im gonna try again to define the problem.

Well, permeability as I already mention it in another post about will TiO2 coating cause denser pore or smaller MWCO? is representing the MWCO of membrane, because permeability is an indicator of the quantity of pure water passing through the membrane. Several conclusions about permeability based on my experiments are located below.

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