Fouling as membrane shortcomings

I do not care if this post will contain only a couple hundred words. I just found an interesting definition of cake formation on the membrane surface. As you probably aware, this cake formation along with pore blockage, concentration polarization have caused fouling, sort of clogging in conventional filter, which increase negative value of membrane operation, lower water produced, higher production cost etc.

What I would like to mention in this post is about particle cake layer formation on the membrane surface. It is said by Weimin Xi (2001) that particle cake will eventually reach steady state thickness when the particle convection to the membrane surface is balanced by the back-transport of the particles away from the membrane surface. I will tell the truth, I do not know much about back-transport of membrane, but it certainly connect with the resistance of the membrane.

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